Виконавець – Збірка (зазначено до кожної композиції)
Альбом – Останні Кобзарі. The last kobzari. Songs and dumy of the blind bards of Ukraine
Видавець, каталожний номер: Караван – KCD 250
Рік видання – 2001
01. Розповідь про кобзарство – Георгій Ткаченко
Heorthiy Tkachenko – Tkachenko’s story about kobzars
02. Плач невільників (дума XVI ст.) – Єгор Мовчан
Yhor Movchan – Dama «Lament of the captives». 16th centry
03. Про трьох братів Самарських (дума XVII ст.) – Єгор Мовчан
Yhor Movchan – Duma «About the three Samara Brothers». 17th Century
04. Із-за гори ворон кряче (українська народна пісня) – Євген Адамцевич
Yevhen Adamtsevych – «Веуоd the mountains, the crow caws». Ukrainian folk song
05. Ой, не пугай, пугаченьку (українська народна пісня) – Євген Адамцевич
Yevhen Adamtsevych – «Don’t hoot little horn owl». Ukrainian folk song
06. Через мої ворітоньки (українська народна пісня) – Євген Адамцевич
Yevhen Adamtsevych – «Through my gates». Ukrainian folk song
07. Про Олексія Поповича (дума XVI ст.) – Георгій Ткаченко
Heorhiy Tkachenko – Duma «Oleksiy Popovych». 16-th century
08. Ой, піду я лугом (українська народна пісня) – Георгій Ткаченко
Heorhiy Tkachenko – «І will go by the meadow». Ukrainian folk song
09. Нема в світі правди (старовинна кобзарська пісня) – Георгій Ткаченко
Heorhiy Tkachenko – «There is no truth in the world». Old-world kobzar song
This CD is devoted to the memory of Raisa Letunovskaya
Throughout the centuries. He touched people’s liues and healed their souls, and mill moue you as wiell…
His epic duma-meditation, casts images of events which took place long ago.Take a step through the curtain of ages, and discover: how they thought, how they acted, and for what purpose they lay down their lives. They were called «God’s sages». Kobzari – wandering folk bards and court musicians. Churylo, the first kobzar whose name is documented in the chronicles of 1498, was a court musician of the Polish King Sigmund the First. The duma (pronounced dooma) represents the highest form of musical recitative, an unique phenomenon of Slavic folklore. The kobzar art, whose roots date back thousands of years to the Ryivan Rus is perhaps the most colorful, emotional and intricate facet of Ukrainian traditional culture.
Heorhy Tkachenko completed arts school in Kharkiv in 1919 and the Arts Institute of Moscow in 1929. In the 30’s and 40’s, he was a landscaping architect and painter in Moscow. In addition to being widely known for his contributions to the kobzar art, he was also popular for his water- color landscapes depicting architectural landmarks, which were exhibited in Moscow, St. Petersburg and cities throughout Ukraine.
In the early 50’s, he moved to Kyiv.
Tkachenko became interested in the kobzar art in 1917, while studying in Kharkiv. He bought an old-world bandura dating back to the 18th century, on which he played throughout his life. In Kharkiv, he attended the performances of such noted bandurists as Ivan Kuchuhura- Kucherenko, Pavlo Haschenko, Petro Drevchenko, Hnat Khotkevych, and mastered the Zinkiv school of traditional bandura playing. After oving to Kyiv, he performed as part
of the kobzar studio, which was organized by the Musical-Choral Association in the late 60’s.
In the 70’s and 80’s he performed in many kobzar concerts, as the single representative of the «Kharkiv» school of bandura playing, using a diatnic instrument (true to the tradition of Hnat Khotkevych, Stepan Pasiuha, Petro Drevchenko, Ivan Kuchuhura- Kucherenko). His design sketches of the old-world bandura were used in the construction of many replicas of this antique instrument.
Folklorists, studying his performance of dum had the opportunity to witness a rare living relic. Tkachenko was a philosopher, spiritual leader, teacher and «рап-otets» (elder father) of the kobzar art tradition. His repertoire included eight dumy, psalms, as well as historical, lyrical, humorous folk songs and dance melodies.
Yehor Movchan was blind from smallpox when he was just ten months old. From 1905-1907, he studied at a school for blind children in Kharkiv.
Upon his return home, he studied for two years with the kobzar Stepan Pasiuha, and began performinq independently in 1913.
Yehor Movchan Born 1898, in Velyka Pysarivka, Sumy Oblast. Died in 1968, in Puscha Vodytsia, on the outskirts of Kyiv.
In the city of Okhtyrka, he studied with kobzars Mykhailo Kravchenko, Petro Drevchenko, Pavlo Haschenko. In 1939, Movchan was one of 37 folk bards who participated in the First Republican Conference of Kobzari, organized by the Ukrainian Folklore Institute of the Ukrainian Academy of Arts and Sciences.
His performance at the Fourth International Conference of Slavists in Moscow in 1958 was triumphant. Movchan’s dumy and folk songs, including the Duma «Lament of the Captives», accompanied a lecture on the epos of the
Ukrainian people given by the Ukrainian scholar Maksym Rylsky, and was heard by scholars from many countries.
From 1965 to the time of his death, Movchan lived at the Republican Building of Stage Veterans in Puscha Vodytsia, on the outskirts of Kyiv.
His work included some dumy, historical songs, a number of original compositions and kobzar musical humoresques.
At the age of two, Adamtsevych was blind as a result of smallpox. Yevhen Adamtsevych studied in a school for the blind in Kyiv, and eventually moved to the city of Romny, Sumy Oblast. In 1925, he began studying bandura with the kobzar Musiy Oleksiyenko, from whom he learned much of his kobzar repertoire.
Adamtsevych began performing solo in the late 20’s. In the 30’s- he wandered through villages with his wife Lydia as his guide. In 1939, he participated in the First Republican Conference of Kobzari, organized by the Ukrainian Folklore Institute of the Ukrainian Academy of Arts and Sciences, and in 1940, he participated in the Congress of Folk Singers in Moscow.
In the 1960’s, Adamtsevych was part of a group of kobzari who traveled from region to region in Ukraine. He performed for scholars and writers in Moscow in 1970. His repertoire included mostly Ukrainian folk songs: historical, literary, humorous, as well as instrumental melodies.
Adamtsevych composed the famous «Zaponzhian March».
Yevhen Adamtsevych. Born 1904, in Solonytsia, Poltava Oblast. Died 1972, in Kholmivka, Crimea.
Heorhiy Tkachenko. Eticerpts from a Discoorse on the Kobzar Art*
An instrument for a bandurist- is his own soul. Once he is used to it, it seems there can be no life without it…
I began getting involved in this matter in my youth. Before the Revolution yet, around 1916-17. Somehow I happened to see and hear a bandurist. I was running for bread, when X heard a strumming sound. … I ran up to take a closer look, and there sat a real, live, elderly bandurist, with his guide, singing: «0 Moroz, Morozenko, you glorious Kozak….» I was so enchanted, that at that very moment I knew I had come upon my destiny…
I found an old, dilapidated bandura, which I had restored, and soon began to study the bandura. At that time, all the good bandurists were in Kharkiv – Kuchugura-Kucherenko, Haschenko, Hnat Khotkevych, – plenty to listen to. So I went here and there, and learned in that order. And then I spent the rest of my life getting better at my art, getting to know other bandurists, many of whom I knew well. There was my friend and contemporary -Yehor Khomych Movchan- such a wonderful bandurist. He was the last of the traditional blind bandurists.
And where was the genesis of this all, how did it all come to be and where did these bandurists come from? A while back, in ancient times, there were many-stringed instruments that were played still in the age of Prince Volodymyr the Great (10th and 11th century-Ed.) and earlier, called «boyany». And then progressively times changed, the Tatars came and all else broke loose, but the folk music remained alive. The Tartars could destroy the Golden Gates of Kyiv, but they could not destroy our song. Where there are people – there is song. And so it continued, to the 17th century when Ukraine finally lived free of Russia somehow. In the 18th century, many instruments stabilized, as did the bandura. So this is the bandura you see before you, this is the instrument which was stabilized in the 18th century. The 18th century was a happy and good time of plentitude for Ukraine. There was even a school in Hlukhiv, where there was also a bandura class. Hryhory Savych Skovoroda (Ukrainian philosopher, scholar, poet, musician, 1722-1794, Ed.) studied bandura there. Even the secret Tsar of Russia, Rozumovsky, husband of Elizabeth Petrivna was the bandurist and bard Kyrylo. During the reign of Elizabeth Petrivna (Russian Empress, 1741-1761, Ed.) the bandura art flourished. In the court there were bandurists, one by the name of Lubystok was particularly favored by the Empress Petrivna. He soon tired of court etiquette however, and fled. He was sought throughout Ukraine, in order to be returned to her. And so, in those days, the instrument was highly regarded.
And what about the bandurists-their everyday life, how did they study- it’s possible to discuss this for many hours. Briefly I can say that the education of a bandurist was very long. If a young boy was born blind, or became blind somehow, including men, they were taken to some master bandurist. And
so life and studies were pretty difficult and harsh. For the first year, one had to beg for his master,
asking for charity. «Please give to a blind, sightless » A young boy received such charity, and then
had to turn it all over to his master. This was perhaps fine and well to some extent. The boy may not have had access to the instrument itself, but he was able to absorb in his heart all those melodies, played by his master. And this was maybe even the right approach- once he knew the melodies well, then learning everything else would come easier. Then another three years of study on the bandura. If he was able to show himself well after that, then he was given a «vyzvilka». This was a verbal diploma, which meant he was ready to perform. A «vyzvilka’ was bestowed through a very solemn ritual on «Green Sunday» ( an old pagan summer feast day, Ed.) Everyone would gather at some famous, honorary elder master’s home. Teachers would bring one or two students, who would have to pass an exam of sorts. Each student would have to sing a duma or two, a psalm – as psalms are a fundamental part of each program. Songs about love or dance melodies did not have to played- they were not even necessarily acceptable. Love songs, especially, were considered sinful songs,; they had no place in a kobzar’s repertoire. The organization was quite similar to old-time trade unions. At the time, carpenters, stone-masons and the like all had their own organizations. The same was true for musicians who had their guild. Usually they were associated with some church. There they would have an icon, an icon lamp and such. The «vyzvilka» itself was a secret password like «the Kozak is on the horse» or «the shovel is in the ground», some sort of watchword. And with that password, he would go among the people. And what was the «vyzvilka» for? So as not to profane this art form. First of all, once there was a «vyzvilka» – that meant he was a musician. Secondly – so that there wouldn’t be too many in one region, and none in others.
This continued almost to the time of the Famine in Ukraine (Famine of 1933, Ed.) During the Famine, this whole tradition was immediately and completely wiped out. No traditional bandurists really survived. Unless someone was able to escape, as Yehor Khomych Movchan did. For example, I was working in Moscow at the time. So this did not affect me, but all those poor souls. Who then needed a poor blind man? Even Pasiuha (kobzar, Y. Movchan’s teacher, Ed.) was found dead. And he was quite wealthy, a kulak. I remember a song from that time « On the mountain, on the grave, across the width of Ukraine, lies a fallen Kozak, covered with a cloth….»Pasiuha was a very good bandurist. Yavomytsky (Ukrainian historian, writer, ethnographer, and folklorist, 1855-1940- Ed.) even took Pasiuha with him wherever he traveled to lecture. And at that time, these «God’s people» (that’s what they used to call kobzars in the old days. Ed.) all died. They were of the weak and impractical sort of people. And so all those traditions came to an end. I can forthrightly say, without any exaggeration or boasting, that I am the Last. I’m 91 years old. When I’m gone, there will never be any more like us.
*The root of the word kobzar comes from the word kobza, a smaller, circular, lute-like instrument that was the predecessor of the more modern bandura.
1. Tkachenko’s Story about Kobzars.
2. Yehor Movchan. Duma «Lament of the Captives». 16th century.
The duma (pronounced dooma) represents the highest form of musical recitative, an unique phenomenon of Slavic folklore.iypically, a duma is a lyrico-epic work of folk origin depicting events of the 16th and 17th century Kozak period, which was more chanted than sung. This duma is a variant, as it is almost completely devoid of epic action. Such dumy were called «laments» and were very close in genre to funeral lamentation or wailing for the dead, and other melancholy forms.
The captive Kozaks are begging God to ease their suffering from the wounds inflicted upon them by the chains and hard labor of imprisonment on a Turkish galley ship. They call the Turkish pasha «a non-believer of Christianity», in other words one who converted due to lack of faith. Hearing this, the pasha commands his janissaries-overseers to beat the Kozaks. As the captives lie bleeding, they condemn the Turkish land and heathen faith. They beg God to liberate them from captivity and bow their heads before God, their Kozak chief, all their Kozak brotherhood, and « to all those who may be hearing their story» for many years, to the end of time.
3. Yehor Movchan. Duma «About the Three Samara Brothers». 17th century.
The river Samarka is the left tributary of the Dnipro river, an important transportation artery, where the Zaporizhian winter camps were located. Armed conflicts were fought on the Samarka’s banks between the Kozaks and the Turkish- Tartar invaders in the 16-17th centuries.
By the river Samarka, near the Saltanky well, lie the fatally wounded Kozak Samara brothers. The oldest brother asks the middle brother to take water from the well to clean his wounds. But his brother cannot move, as his legs have been slashed and his arms pierced by shots. Then both the older and middle brother ask the youngest to rise and sound the Kozak trumpet, so that Kozaks passing by might hear the trumpet signal and come bury their bodies, not allowing them to become prey for animals and birds. The youngest brother answers, that they were slain not by the Turkish sword or the janissaries’ bullets, but rather by their own father’s prayer. He recalls the sins of the brothers: they never asked for the forgiveness of their mother and father when leaving for the army, and were very cruel to their oldest sister. It was for these great sins that they were now being punished. The youngest brother adds, that he will not sound the trumpet, for it may be heard by the Turks. A black cloud approaches as the Samara brothers die in the field. Their glory will not fade till the end of time. And for those listening to this duma, the kobzar wishes for many years of good health.
4. Yevhen Adamtsevych. «Beyond the Mountains, the Crow Caws». Ukrainian folk song.
Beyond the mountains, the crow caws, and the poor widow cries, for she has nothing to feed her children. The widow asks her brother to help, to take her and her children in for the winter. But the brother refuses, for his sister has many children. The sister cajoles him into helping her by saying that she will do everything to please him, and will send the children outside , so that they won’t bother him while he eats his dinner.
While their uncle dines, the children go to their father’s grave and beg him to rise from the ground, to save them from their difficult fate.
5. Yevhen Adamtsevych. «Don’t Hoot, Little Horn Owl». Ukrainian folk song.
The little horn owl hoots in despair, for he has no nest in which to raise his children. Below him, a widow sits to rest with her child. She is worried about her son’s father, who has disappeared without a trace. An eagle responds to the widow, that he knows where her husband lies. He circles his body three times a day- for breakfast, lunch and dinner, and perches on his curly hair, as he pulls the eyes out of his skull.
6. Yevhen Adamtsevych. «Through My Gates». Ukrainian folk song.
A cuckoo bird flies through the gates.
A father does not allow his daughter to marry the man of her choice. Instead he weds her to an army commander, stationed far away from her homeland and her family. The saddened girl picks a flower and drops it into the water, so that it may flow to her loved ones. When her mother goes for water, she recognizes the flower, and worries that the flower is wilted – perhaps it is an omen that her daughter is ill. But the daughter is alive and well, for she has fallen into the good hands of a kind woman,.
7. Heorhiy Tkachenko. Duma «Oleksiy Popovych». 16-th century.
This duma’s roots date back to pre-Christian times, over 1000 years ago.
On a white rock in the Black Sea sits a hawk, mournfully mewing as it watches the horrible storm raging over the sea. The storm smashes and scatters the Kozak boats. The Kozak chief urges his Kozaks not to hide their sins, to confess to God, the Black Sea and to their chief. All the Kozaks remain silent, except for Oleksiy Popovych, who is willing to sacrifice himself for the salvation of his brotherhood. He asks that they tie a rock around his neck and drop him into the sea. And then the Kozaks cry in despair. How could this brave knight, who reads the
Scriptures three times a day and teaches them from his readings possibly have more sins than all of them put together? Popovych responds by listing all his sins. First and foremost, he did not remember the prayers of his mother and father; did not turn to God. As Oleksiy Popovych repents for his sins before God, the storm cams. Not one Kozak life was lost. Turning to his fellow Kozaks, Oleksiy Popovych tells them that in the Scriptures, it is written: he who does not forget the prayers of his mother and father, is blessed by God. The kobzar concludes his tale of Oleksiy Popovych by wishing everyone happiness till the end of time.
8. Heorhiy Tkachenko. «I Will Go By the Meadow». Ukrainian folk song.
A brother walks through a meadow in the valley and comes upon his sister harvesting wheat. When he asks why she doesn’t greet him, the sister responds that she was not able to recognize him through the tears that have filled her eyes. The brother then asks why she looks so weak and why she has grayed so soon. The sister responds that she is widowed with young children, and now works hard as a hired hand, but still has no firewood to burn at home, no food to cook. Her young children cry, for she has nothing to feed them.
9. Heorhiy Tkachenko. «There Is No Truth in the World». Old-world kobzar song.
There is no truth in the world. It is difficult to find anywhere, because truth now lives with untruth. Truth is dishonored, stomped upon, while untruth is showered with honey-wine. Truth has died, but the clever untruth has engulfed the world. The end of the world is nearing, so be wary even, of your own brother.
Patron Vasyl Nikolaenko
Author of Project Sergey Efremv
Consulted by Yuriy Borovyk
Translated by Lydia Matiaszek
Mastered by A.V.V.
Designed by Yuriy Marusiy e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Manufactured by Caravan Records
Distributed by Caravan Records tel. (380 44) 227 8706 e-mail: email@example.com
© 2001, S.Efremov ℗ 2001, Nisa e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org